What were the problems of piecing together to know about Harappan life ? ‘Burials is a better source to trace social differences prevalent in the Harappan Civilization.’ Explain. It was probably done to escape from mutual disputes. According to them, Mohenjodaro and Harappa had different rulers. The mud-utensils made by them were quite smooth and shining. How many wells have found in Mohenjodaro? 2019 (D)) Bricks, Beads and Bones-2. Daya Ram Sahni and Rakhal Das Banerji respectively. Or 2019 (Comp.)) How did he mark a change in the Indian archaeology? 11. Class 12 History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan Civilisation Harappan Civilisation is also known as Indus Valley Civilisation. 3. Understanding the Function of an Artefact : Indirect Evidence: Many times archaeologists have to take help of indirect evidence. (c) A few houses had stair-case to go on the roof or the second storey. What was the Great Bath? What reasons are given regarding the existence of authority and ruler class in Harappan culture? 2. If you have any query regarding NCERT Solutions for Class 12 History Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones The Harappan Civilisation, drop a comment below and we will get back to you at the earliest. Then the residences were made alongside these roads. Its main centres were Harappa, Mohenjodaro, Lothal, Kot Diji, Chanhudaro, Azamgarh, etc. Answer: Important Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones (The Harappan Civilisation) Important Questions for Class 12 History Chapter 1 – 2 Marks Questions Question 1. Who was John Marshall? The Director-General of the ASI, often called the 'Father of Indian archaeology', was, 2. Or They were used to grind grains and cereals. (a) Almost every house had a courtyard. CBSE Class 12 History Bricks Beads Bones Harappan Civilization. Besides, water reservoirs may have been used to store water for irrigation in Dholavira (Gujarat). Describe the opinion of some of the archaeologists about the Harappan society. Animal bones found at Harappan sites include those of cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo and pig. 1. Copper was probably brought from Oman. With which countries did Harappan people have trading contacts? The main reason of these contacts was the exchange of goods. Answer: In the construction of walls, they used the mud to fix bricks because, in this way, the bricks could be reused if there rose the need for doing so. Prove with the help of examples that the Harappans had established their contacts with western Asia for purchase/exchange of artefacts. For example, archaeologists have to decide whether an artefact is a tool or any ornament. 12th History chapter 1 Bricks breads and bones … They knitted both woollen and cotton clothes. There was a provision of a well, bathroom and furniture in the houses. Answer: John Marshall was the Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India. His contribution in the Indian Archaeology can be understood by the following points: (i) He announced the discovery of new civilization i.e. Other important updates about CBSE board exam 2021 are also available here. TOPIC: Bricks, Beads and Bones. Millets are found from sites in Gujarat. A brick was fixed at the end of this drains. He tried to recover artefacts, during excavation, that he thought had some cultural value. People gradually forgot all about them when Harappan cities fell into ruins. wheeler? Cattle, sheep, goat, buffalo and pig. A carpet was laid on all these wooden strips. They did not bury precious things with the dead. 3. Answer: Agriculture: The main profession of the Indus Valley people was agriculture. Or each side of a corridor, with drains from each bathroom connecting to a drain that ran along the corridor. Here, was irrigation was probably necessary for agriculture. How Artefacts are Identified? House drains first emptied into a sump or cesspit into which solid matter settled while wastewater flowed out into the street drains. Question 7. They also made beautiful ornaments of gold and silver. They had a rough surface made of hard rock or sandstone. Width of the Roads and Streets: All the roads of the Indus Valley were quite wide. For example, if a shell or stone is used to make any object then pieces of shell or stone will be discarded as waste at the place of production. Or Archaeologists try to identify the function of an artefact by investigating the context in which it was found. Religious Equality: The religion of the people of the Indus V&lley Civilisation resembled modern religions. Two main types have been found: those on which another smaller stone was pushed or rolled to and fro, and others with which a second stone was used as a pounder, eventually making a large cavity in the nether stone. He noted the object but unsuccessfully tried to place that seal in that time frame with which he was familiar. (C.B.S.E. No part of the house had any projection towards the roads or streets. Explain the main characteristics of the burials of the Harappan civilisation. Archaeologists generally look for certain things to identify centres of craft production and these are raw materials like stone nodules, copper ore, whole shells, tools, unfinished material, rejects and waste material. Who was John Marshall? 2. But a site like Harappa was completely different from the nature of research of Cunningham because it was neither a part of the itinerary of the Chinese pilgrims and nor it was a historical city. M.S. The worship of lingam is still prevalent in the Hindu religion. Who solved this problem? For example, pieces of cotton have been found at some Harappan sites, even then we have to take help of indirect evidence, like pictures or statues, to know about the clothing. He is still worshipped by millions of people. (c) Upper arm of an adult. Answer: Which material was used to make beads? Answer: MCQ Questions for Class 12 History: Ch 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones. Answer: (iii) The Lower Town was walled and buildings were built on platforms. One bull has also been shown on one of the seals. Answer: Answer: Roads and streets laid out in a grid pattern. Answer: ... History; April 06, 2018 PART 1 CH1 Bricks, Beads and Bones (Summary) THEMES IN INDIAN HISTORY PART I. CH1 BRICKS, BEADS AND BONES THE HARAPPAN CIVILISATION. Describe the basis on which Archaeologists identified the centres of craft production in the Harappan Culture. The construction of large public structures had come to an end. These bricks were fixed with mud and mortar. All the signs were a symbol of something. Your email address will not be published. Other means of irrigation were: Question 20. Answer: Answer: Recent archaeological finds suggest that Harappan civilisation had contacts with distant lands. Answer: Question 1. They have been found in the Lower Town. Besides these, use of copper, bronze, gold, shell, faience, terracotta or burnt clay was also used. Bones of which animals were found at Harappan sites? They were also proficient in making public currency (seals made of mud) and sculpture. List the items of food available to people in Harappan cities. (C.B.S.E. The recent excavation of Harappa may be thought to have changed the picture. The bricks were also used to cover these drains. On the other hand, many buildings in the Lower Town were built on platforms which served as foundations. Punjab. What was the feature of the weight system of Harappan civilisation? Would you agree that the drainage system of the Harappan cities indicates town-planning? Many times smaller objects were made by using larger waste pieces, but minuscule bits were generally left in the Answer: John Marshall was the Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India. Answer: Just because of his specific focus, he missed the importance of Harappa. A variety of materials were used for making beads¬like stones, for example, carnelian, jasper, crystal quartz How did the Harappan civilisation decline? FROM G.F. DALES, “The Mythical Massacre of Mohenjodaro.” The expedition, 1964. There was a road which was even wider than 36 feet. Several scholars suggest that the Great Bath was used for some kind of a special ritual bath. Or What were the problems in the excavation work of John Marshall? Or Explain, while describing the spread and centres of Harappan culture, why is it known as Harappan culture? Each house had a courtyard, bathroom and a staircase to go on the roof or the first storey of the house. Before the coming of the Harappan […] The people of the Harappan civilisation considered water as pious and sacred. (C.B.S.E. What causes were responsible for the decline of the Harappan civilisation ? Lapis Lazuli was a blue stone with very high value. Answer: 2018) List the materials used to make beads in the Harappan Civilisation. Process of making of Beads-Making of beads differed as per the materials used. 2013 (D)) Answer: The major problem faced by archaeologists, in relation to an artefact, is related with its, 10. 2015 (D)) Characteristics : Question 8. So, although Harappan artefacts were found fairly and some of them reached Cunningham he did not realise its importance. The harappan script is undeciphered till today due to which we are still unable to attain information about ancient civilisation. The historians believe that the tank was used for bathing on religious ceremonies. Kerala Plus Two History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones (The Harappan Civilisation) Question 1. Answer: Question 26. Question 1. Question 4. Scroll down for Bricks, Beads and Bones from NCERT Book Class 12 History Book & important study material. The huge collection of Questions and Answers for academic studies, CBSE school. All these pillars are also rectangular. There is evidence that some of the Harappan sites remained occupied even after 1900 BCE. Aggressions by the Aryans: Many historians believe that the people of Harappan civilisation had to face many aggressions by the Aryans. (C.B.S.E. Town Planning. It has been shown seated cross-legged in a ‘Yogic’ posture, sometimes surrounded by animals. 2. 1. FROM R.E.M. It suggests that two different crops were grown together. What could be the possible reasons for the decline of Harappan civilisation? Please share this blog with your freinds. While analysing discovery of Harappan civilisation, clarify the statement that Cunningham was unable to understand the importance of Harappa, regarding the beginning of Indian history due to his confusion. CBSE issues sample papers every year for students for class 12 board exams. These drains were one foot deep and nine inches wide. The main reason of this contact was an exchange of goods. Important Questions and Answers 1 mark Questions 2 marks Questions 3 marks Questions 4 marks Questions History - Part I Chapter / Theme 1 : Bricks, Beads and Bones - The Harappan Civilisation Chapter / Theme 2: Kings (a) Alexander Cunningham. They also used lime for this purpose. In 1924, he announced the discovery of new civilisation in Indus Valley. How archaeologists identify centres of craft production? “The drainage system in Harappan. Discuss the contribution of the Harappan Culture to Indian society. Jan 15, 2021 - Short Questions with Answers - Bricks, Beads and Bones Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of Humanities/Arts. Sir John Marshall has compared this building to a Buddha Temple. These bricks were flat, round and of big size. The solid in the water was accumulated here and the water flowed into the main drain. 1. Bones of fish and fowl are also found. The body lay on its back diagonally across the lane. 2018) Vast Buildings: Many vast buildings have been found in the Indus Valley Civilisation which are praiseworthy. Other archaeological evidence indicating towards distant contacts include seals, weights, beads, etc., of Harappan culture. These days all such animals are considered as the carriers of different Gods and Goddesses. In the case of Harappan culture, these distinctive objects include beads, seals, stone blades, weights, baked bricks, etc. Answer: These texts mention the products from Meluhha like lapis lazuli, carnelian, gold, copper and varieties of wood. The first section of this city was small and was built on higher place. It has in the past been supposed that they were mythical. There were generally large settlements with large and small buildings. According to George Dales : Their food included grains like wheat, barley, lentil, chickpea and sesame. Its walls are wide and strong. Name few buildings found at Harappan sites. The Director-General of the ASI, often called the 'Father of Indian archaeology', was. 2 Marks Questions Answer : John Marshall was the Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India. (Delhi 2016) Answer: John Marshall was the Director-General of the Archaeological Survey […] Special round bricks were used to make the corner of the house round. Many are downloadable. Mention any four items found in the graves of the Harappans. Where are-or were-these citadels? Answer: Question 21. (b) There might have been deliberate and .large-scale destruction. Roofs of the Houses: The roofs of the houses were built with strips of wood. Answer: Second and more complex classification is based on the utility of artefacts. (b) Those with which a second stone was used as a pounder. So its mystery has still not been solved. Harappan people had contacts with distinct lands. In fact, the burials were like the big pyramids of Egypt. Some doors had bolts of iron. Explain how did Harappans maintain contact with distant lands. ______ was a large rectangular tank in a courtyard surrounded by a corridor on all four sides. Ques. Free Online BRICKS BEADS AND BONES Practice & Preparation Tests Artefacts are generally classified into useful and luxurious things. Answer: There was a very good provision of drains for the outlet of wastewater in the towns of the Harappan civilisation. (C.B.S.E. WHEELER, “Harappa 1946” Ancient India, 1947. Question 14. Or (ii) On the Citadel buildings were constructed on mud brick platforms. It is said that one road was 36 feet wide whereas another road was just 18 feet wide. Toll Free No. The most important industry of the Harappans at Chanhudaro was, 5. 1 mark Questions; 2 marks Questions; 3 marks Questions; 4 marks Questions; History - Part I. He demonstrated that the skeletons found at the site did not belong to the same period. Class 12 - History - Bricks, Beads and Bones . (i) The drains of which place are being described in this passage? It was so because shells were easily available as they were situated near the sea. Finds of rice are relatively rare. In fact, the size of the doors depended on the size of the house. Chapter / Theme 1 : Bricks, Beads and Bones - The Harappan Civilisation; Chapter / Theme 2: Kings, Farmers and Towns : Early States and Economies; Chapter / Theme 3 : Kinship, Caste and Class - Early Societies (iii) The Great Bath: A Great Bath has also been found in the excavation. It was done for the comfort of the animals and bullock- carts. No such evidence has been found in Punjab and Sindh. In 1875, a report on Harappan seal was published, which was written by, 8. All these cultures were called as “Late Harappan” or “Successor Cultures”. Copper was brought from Oman; on the southeastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. What does it indicate? Its drain was connected to the street drain through the wall. Chapter / Theme 1 : Bricks, Beads and Bones - The Harappan Civilisation; Chapter / Theme 2: Kings, Farmers and Towns : Early States and Economies; Chapter / Theme 3 : Kinship, Caste and Class - Early Societies (iv) Which aspect of the Harappan culture do these grinding equipment highlight? There were also a few narrow roads. Across a lane to the north, there was a smaller building with eight bathrooms. 1 mark Questions; 2 marks Questions; 3 marks Questions; 4 marks Questions; History - Part I. NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS. It is a wonder of archaeology that “little heaps of material, mostly sand, have frequently been found lying alongside drainage channels, which shows that the debris was not always carted away when the drain was cleared.”. Exchanges were regulated by a precise system of weights, usually made of a stone called ____. The Lower Town was quite vast as compared to the citadel. Based on these findings, in 1924, the then Director-General of ASI John Marshall declared in front of the world about the discovery of new civilisation in Indus Valley. These wells were in a room which was easily approached from outside which was mostly used by passers-by. Extramarks offers NCERT solutions for chapter Bricks, Beads & Bones of CBSE Class 12. Materials like cloth, leather, wood and reeds decomposed due to the passage of time. Question 7. According to Sir John Marshall, … Whereas a couple of them definitely seem to indicate a slaughter, … the bulk of the bones were found in contexts suggesting burials of the sloppiest and most irreverent nature. For example, in some burials, the hollowed-out Spaces were lined with bricks. Class 12 History Important Questions Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones: The Harappan Civilisation CBSE Important Extra Questions for Class 12 History Chapter Wise Selina Concise Mathematics Class 10 ICSE Solutions 2020-21 Writing has been found on seals, rims of jars, copper tools, copper and terracotta tablets, bone rods, jewellery and even on the ancient signboard. At the time of cleaning the drains, these bricks could be easily removed. 2. Mention specifically the contribution of Sir John Marshall. 2010 (D)) They took bath in the Great Bath on all special religious occasions. Answer: The smaller weights were used for weighing the jewellery and beads. It is the oldest Civilisation of India. Answer: How did architectural features of Mohenjodaro indicate planning? They made many kinds of instruments and weapons besides statues and utensils. A Planned Urban Centre: Harappa was a planned urban centre. He wrote: The Rigveda mentions pure, meaning rampant, fort or stronghold. Answer: A well-planned network of roads and drainage systems was the key feature of their settlement. Mention the two sections of the Harappan settlements and give one main feature of each. Or What was Lapis Lazuli? 8. The towns that have been excavated bear testimony to the fact that they were well- planned. Here all questions are solved with detailed explanation and available for free to check. Kerala Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads, and Bones 1. Answer: Harappa Question 2. Answer: Going through the plethora of material available online as well as offline could be a back breaking job, hence, I have prepared the questions and “There are indications of decisions being taken and implemented in Harappan society.” In light of this statement, explain whether there may have been rulers to rule over the Harappan society. The lower denominations of weights were binary (1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, etc., up to 12,800). Question 1. While constructing residential buildings, the people had full concern for their privacy. Shamans are those men and women who claim that they have magical and healing power and have an ability to communicate with the other world. Or 2010 (D)) Grinding, polishing and drilling completed the process. They established settlements … Term and Times. Answer: 2009 (D)) Question 1. But no information is available regarding their actual agricultural practices. For example, once one British gave a Harappan seal to Cunningham. How are the burials found from the sites of Harappan culture different from the pyramids of Egypt? 1. This tank is 3914 feet long, 2314 feet wide and eight feet deep. Answer: He used accounts of Chinese pilgrims who visited India between the 4th and 7th centuries C.E. They were 3 to 4 feet wide and six feet in height. Male Gods of Indus Valley: One seal found in excavation depicts a male God. Answer: It was a large rectangular tank made in a courtyard. At Cholistan and Banawali Haryana. Sir John Marshall’s term as the Director-General of ASI was actually a term of major change in the Indian Children were provided with different types of toys. These weights were generally made of a stone called chert. Or Answer: Question 28. They also knew about the herbs and spices. 1. Question 3. Extramarks offers NCERT solutions for chapter Bricks, Beads & Bones of CBSE Class 12. Planned Houses: The houses of the Indus Valley Civilisation were built with planning. It is 180 feet in length and 108 feet in width. 2013 (D)) Your email address will not be published. Wheeler considered Indra, the Aryan war-god, responsible for the large-scale destruction in Mohenjodaro because, according to Rigveda, Indra was puramdara, that is, the fort-destroyer. 3. The description of these professions is as under : 1. State the main features of this script. Indus Valley Civilization is one of the oldest and important civilizations of the world. 2. Or Many people had big houses. Moreover, the present-day resemblance with things can easily lead us to the function of an ancient artefact. Get CBSE class 12 History NCERT solutions for chapter 1 – Bricks Beads And Bones The Harappan Civilisation below. querns of the former type were probably used solely for grain; the second type possibly only for pounding herbs and spices for making curries. According to archaeologists, the following were the features of Harappan society : Before the coming of the Harappan […] area. NCERT Book Class 12 History Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones Kerala Plus Two History Notes Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads, and Bones 1. Who was Cunningham? (b) Each house had a bathroom whose floor was made of bricks. John Marshall was the Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). Ornaments and Cosmetics: Like the modern women, the women of the Indus Valley Civilisation were also fond of beauty and cosmetics They used lip-sticks and powder. What is Faience ? 2. Describe the religious beliefs of Harappan people. 3. Each sign stood for a vowel as a consonant. Rajasthan. Question 22. Or Whenever the wind blew, it took with it the rubbish scattered on the roads. started the archaeological excavations in the mid 19th century. Evidence of a large-scale burning at some places or sites. Processing of food required grinding equipment as well as vessels for mixing, blending and cooking. Discuss the main ‘characteristics of the planned urban centres of the Harappan civilisation. Answer : 2 (Rajasthan) Terracotta toy models of bullock carts indicate that land routes were important means of transport for Harappan people. Answer: Explain the distinctive features of the residential buildings of the Mohenjodaro. In this blog you will get summary and important question answer of class 12 (Arts). Confusion of Cunningham. Describe the major changes marked I by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) in Harappan archaeology. However, they were described as the bouQuestionuet of flowers (gold sta) who were united by the loyalty of the emperor. They liked to wear bangles, earrings and necklaces. CBSE Class 12 humanities Sample Papers, Solutions, Syllabus, Videos, Notes & Test online at TopperLearning. The Harappan script is called enigmatic because it has not been possible to decipher it so far. Enumerate two distinct characteristics of this culture. Identify the groups who would have provided these. It was spread in 12,99,600 sQuestion km. Answer: This artefact could also be useful in both forms. These were made of stone, metal and terracotta. Probably sea contacts were there with Oman, Bahrain or Mesopotamia because Mesopotamian texts refer Meluhha as a land of sea. Sometimes these burial pits were made in different ways. Get CBSE class 12 History NCERT solutions for chapter 1 – Bricks Beads And Bones The Harappan Civilisation below. 2009 (D)), About the drains, Mackay noted: “It is certainly the most complete ancient system as yet discovered.” Every house was connected to the street drains. Harappa and Mohenjodaro. (C.B.S.E. It is so because still, we are unable to decipher the script of that time with which we could easily understand the function of an artefact. ________ was almost exclusively devoted to craft production, including bead-making, shell-cutting, metal-working, seal-making and weight-making. Some graves contain pottery and ornaments which indicates that Harappan people believed in the afterlife. The domestic wastewater passed through gutters to flow into the street drains. What did sources indicate that land routes were important means of transport for Harappan people? The roads and streets were laid out along an approximate ____ pattern. Bones of deer and gharial have also been found. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 history part 1, part 2, part 3, includes all the questions provided in NCERT Books for 12th Class history Subject. Kerala Plus Two History Chapter Wise Questions and Answers Chapter 1 Bricks, Beads and Bones (The Harappan Civilisation) Question 1. Mark major sites of this civilization on a map of India and Pakistan. Question 17. Himachal Pradesh. Which town of Indus Valley Civilization was flooded and destroyed more It was made watertight by setting bricks on edge of tank and by using a mortar of gypsum. Answer: Question 29. Question 11. Religious customs: Archaeologists found certain objects which may have had a religious significance. The saddle querns have been found in large numbers at Mohenjodaro. Some of the dead were buried with copper mirrors. 2011 (D)) Worshipping Trees and Animals: One seal found here, depicts one God between the branches of ‘Peepal’ tree which shows that people of Indus region worshipped trees as well. Archaeologists of that time preferred to use the written word as a guide to investigations. Answer: Many houses had wells. It also had many distinctive buildings. Later on, these sites were abandoned., In its places, there was an expansion of population at new settlements in Gujarat, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh. Copper was brought from Oman, on the southeastern tip of the Arabian peninsula. From this, one can imagine that the people of Harappan civilisation also ate flesh and meat. There exist earlier and later cultures, generally called early Harappan and late Harappan culture. archaeology. But generally, most of the people did not believe, in burying precious things with the dead. All the roads intersected at right angles. One buffalo and two dears are also shown nearby this picture. Archaeologists found Harappan trade relations with Western Asia through the following archaeological evidence: Question 12. Why the little pots made by it were considered precious ? to Indian archaeology. A few houses had two or three storeys. 2012 (O.D.)) Answer: (i) What are grinding equipment or saddle querns? Or Mesopotamian texts mention many products of Meluhha like lapis lazuli, carnelian, gold, copper and varieties of wood. 1. 1. Mention two strategies adopted to identify the social differences among the Harappans. The greatest merit of these towns was that they were developed keeping in mind the rules concerning the health and sanitation. He used accounts of Chinese pilgrims who visited India between the 4th and 7th centuries CE to locate early settlements. They also ate a few birds. Important questions, guess papers, most expected questions and best questions from 12th History chapter 1 Bricks breads and bones have CBSE chapter wise important questions with solution for free download in PDF format. 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Centre: Harappa was the first professional archaeologist who brought his experience of working in Crete and Greece ground.... Each other at right angles is based on the Harappan sites, charred grains and have... Items of food available to people in Harappan cities came to know about the in... Can be seen in Indian society how different methods of procuring materials for making Beads included beautiful red coloured carnelian. Massive Warehouse has been viewed 14313 times large numbers at Mohenjodaro was given the name of civilization! Deciphering the f. Indus script of stone, metal and terracotta tin with copper History Notes chapter 1 bricks and. Turned, had a round shape beneficial for SSC, Bank, UPSC, CDS NDA! Locate early settlements it may also have been excavated bear testimony to the drain. Who was John Marshall was the Lower Town of Mohenjodaro had a courtyard, bathroom and a courtyard by! People believe that Harappan civilisation round bricks were also proficient in making utensils of mud, copper bronze. ( Harappa ) was based on many trades and professions rules concerning the health and sanitation 1946 ancient! Water for irrigation in Dholavira ( Gujarat ) like lapis lazuli was a break between Harappan! Which the Harappans often contain animal motifs and signs from a script that remains undeciphered generally laid in the?... The writer began writing from the sites of this civilization on a variety of shapes-disc cylindrical!, Solutions, RS Aggarwal Solutions and NCERT Solutions, important Question, practice,... The Town the “ Sindhu River Basin culture ” gave a Harappan seal was published, which towards! Can we say that there were several rulers this civilization on a map of India and.! Jewellery has been found at Harappan sites, there was no single ruler but there buildings! Asked in the Indian society special religious occasions how did the archaeologists the most interesting aspect of courtyard! Perhaps not used much because the following four factors of Indus Valley civilisation used many kinds of which! How can we say that there were rooms on all these wooden strips handles metal..., weights and bricks such evidence has been found stage of reconstruction of the final exam in! These activities cities were laid out along an approximate ____ pattern the east to people... Marshall was the symbol of their excellent Town planning exclusively devoted to craft production areas!