Ianinska, S., & Garcia-Zamor, J. C. (2006). When the Times published my essay, “You Want a Confederate Monument? Confederate statues, however, are the exception; for they are monuments that represent the institutionalization of racism. answer the question of whether Confederate Monuments reflect the ethical values of today’s. According to one, majority of them were built between the 1890’s and the 1950’, the era of Jim Crow segregation” (Elliott, 2017). Tubman, Truth, and Jacobs were enslaved African American women who escaped slavery and fought for black emancipation and civil rights in nineteenth-century America. This disturbance, included one protester being run over by a car driven by a white supremacist which inflamed the, debate to remove civil war monuments. The above may answer the question of how people want to remember the event of fallen soldiers, In further support of keeping Confederate monuments, author Kristina Dunn Johnson uses the, monumental dedication words of Bishop Ellison Capers, “Public monuments are the recognized, memorializing Confederate deaths and vindicating the Confederate Cause (Johnson, 2009). Church in Charleston, South Carolina, by self-proclaimed white supremacist Dylann Roof. Cited hereafter as BRFAL; Olds to Jocelyn, May 16, 1863, AMA. consequence of such interracial familial ties, New Orleans possessed the wealthiest class of African American property holders in the United States in 1836 with 855 free persons of color paying taxes on $2,462,470 worth of property. 4. 30-31 for a vivid description of this evacuation. That is the emblems stir up, strife and discontent as a gesture of unfairness. injustice or a shield against progress but must be a manual for how to avoid repeating the. There is much disdain for the preservation of Confederate Monuments by many organizations, minority groups, and some local and state governments. In this way, trusts and estates law, Jones concludes, became "a unique avenue for black empowerment in the nineteenth century" (p. 155). (2015). Reappropriating Public Memory: Racism, Resistance and. 94, National Archives, Washington, D.C. You will read two sources on the Confederacy and two on the statue debate and then synthesize into an argument for or against removing Confederate monuments. 9. In assisting us in answering the above questions, we turn to several experts in this field. 13, quoted ibid., pp. Prior to Mary’s reunion with her children, the Lesleys had been Mary’s adoptive family, but the Lesley–Walker friendship was an unlikely one. 13, 1863, AMA. That is, honoring Confederate leaders while. 5. the Confederate women and loyal slave’s monument in 1895. The, Confederate flag also became a symbol of social viewpoints influential southerners promoted, stars represented the fifteen states that were slaveholders and the diagonal part representing a, symbol of strength and progress” (Coski, 2009, p. 5). It is for these reasons that the Confederate monuments must be removed. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication. Influenced by the free labor ethos of the North and West and the allure of manufacturing, Kentucky developed into a farming economy of small landholders with less of a stake in slavery than the lower South states. The question stands under moral consideration, either to recognize Confederate monuments as shameful aberrations or as historical monuments, space abandon’s the disgraceful acts of slavery, Confederate monuments is the sagacious or legal action of maintaining honor. First, we discuss the historical use of Confederate symbols. 25. Ulysses S. Grant, Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant (New York, 1885), I, 424-425. 24. First, that. Confederate statues hold tremendous historical value to … Harriet Tubman, Sojourner Truth, Harriet Jacobs, and Mary Walker: For most readers familiar with American history, the first three names are recognizable. For a reiteration of this point, see Halleck to Grant, Jan. 19, 1863, OR, Ser. Should we remove Confederate monuments? While she was most certainly a slave in North Carolina, an 1847 Pennsylvania law opened the possibility for her to claim legal freedom. Emergency Disaster Management Training Academies, To Free a Family: The Journey of Mary Walker (review), Fathers of Conscience: Mixed Race Inheritance in the Antebellum South (review), Memory Brokers, Shameful Pasts, and Civil War Commemoration, Conference: The Neely Center for Ethical Leadership and Decision Making. the Confederacy that is unethical (Rogers, 2016, p.3)? at how public policy can affect or influence the alternatives of Confederate monuments. Monuments from a public policy perspective. Seven years later, she passed away. 13. Stanton to Thomas, Mar. is, justice requires us to define the purpose or nature of the social practice in question (Rogers, n.d.). She committed herself instead to helping freed people, traveling to the South Carolina Sea Islands to provide aid. Contesting the master narrative: The, Starnes, R. D. (1996). 23. Forever Faithful: The Southern Historical Society and Confederate, symbols in public spaces in the South tend to have less knowledge of Civil W. a commonly used defense that the emblems represent' heritage not hate'. Buffington, M. L. (2017). B. Forgiveness, Forgetting, and Resentment. 3 This mythic history views slavery as a benevolent system and argues that the Civil War was fought over states’ rights. Illustrations of the symbolic structure of the sites and ideological struggles to recognize the role of slavery as a cause for war, as well as the role of Black soldiers in the war’s outcome, may add to our understanding of U.S. race relations, both past and present. Cities of the Dead: Contesting the Memory of the Civil W, Journal of Cultural Research in Art Education, No Holier Spot of Ground: Confederate Monuments & Cemeteries of, How the U.S. got so many Confederate monuments. (2011). Jones describes how the court continued to support manumission over enslavement even in the increasingly frenzied atmosphere of the 1850s when Kentucky followed the lead of other southern states in enacting measures to suppress the growth of the free-black population. With the removal of the statue of Confederate General Robert E. Lee from Lee Circle in New Orleans, the debate on Confederate symbols has sparked once again. The soul of our beloved City is deeply rooted in a history that has evolved over thousands of years; rooted in a diverse people who have been here together [JB emphasis] every step of the way — for both good and for ill. That is if the action-based ethics of removing Confederate monuments from public space abandon’s the disgraceful acts of slavery, and bigotry, then conversely, the continuance of Confederate monuments is the sagacious or legal action of maintaining honor. While these monuments gave Southerner’s historical references of Civil W, “these monuments are seen as a connection to an unjust system that had a desire to maintain an, institution of slavery” (Darkwah, 2016, p. 1). Winsboro, I. D. (2016, May). None of these plans worked. contemplated, my conviction is, that however grateful it would be to the feelings of the South, the attempt in the present condition of the Country, would have the ef, accelerating its accomplishment. A North Carolina law passed in 2015 prohibits the removal of these monuments, ... White elites showed their thanks by erecting Confederate monuments. . The above may answer, the inquiry of how people view violence and tragedy over an extended period and develop a, While there are many arguments in support of keeping the Confederate Monuments, equally. AMA], Dec. 1863, American Missionary (Mar., 1864), pp. First, we discuss, the historical use of Confederate symbols. to help you with essay Hire writer In recent years, there have been many discussions between people, requesting for the removal, relocation, or replacement of monuments which represent confederate officials from the civil war. Coffin, p. 636. The removal of monuments and symbols to a racist past is an important step to a more just future. That is since Confederate Monuments express freedom of, speech, they are protected by the U.S. Constitution and should not be removed from public, space. There is no study of the contraband camps in the western theater comparable to Willie Lee Rose's excellent account of the Port Royal, S.C., experiment, Rehearsal for Reconstruction (Indianapolis, 1964). Confederate monuments were mostly mass-produced objects that signify less art than artifice. Finally, we deliberate and apply ethical, From a historical perspective, the use of Confederate symbols (Forts, 2002) such as the, Confederate flag adopted in 1861 was initially utilized as a memorial to the Confederate soldier, and served as a symbol of southern pride and esprit de corps on the battlefield (Coski, 2009). 20. However, 62% of the public at the time, including President Donald Trump, disapproved of efforts to eliminate statues commemorating the Confederacy (Street, 2017). Here we will elaborate on all three. For two years, she lived in the relatively safe haven of Philadelphia. monuments, we tend to think of the meaning of their existence or the reason they exist. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Field, C. (2017). Darkwah, K. Professor Cales UNIV112–Focused Inquiry II 5 May 2016 Unit III, http://thehill.com/blogs/blog-briefing-room/348244-alabama-community-unveils-new-. Five figures carved from marble surround the base. http://abcnews.go.com/US/university-texas-removes-confederate-statues-overnight/story? The portrait features Nathan, a Jewish immigrant from the Netherlands, in a fatherly embrace with Achille, his handsome free son of color. III, III, 100-101. Many municipalities in the United States have removed monuments and memorials on public property dedicated to the Confederate States of America (CSA), and some, such as Silent Sam in North Carolina, have been torn down by protestors. 1. removal of Confederate monuments has been a controversial topic over the past few years. sparked the removal of the Confederate Flag from South Carolina’s state capitol building (Kutz, 2015). However, applying the legal factor to the U.S., the, constitution allows symbols of hate and swastikas under freedom of speech. View ARGUMENATIVE ESSAY.docx from PYSCH 1020 at La Vergne High School. James M. Alexander, Service Record, R.G. They were afraid of losing their profits made from using slave labor and, thus, seceded and rebelled against the North. The controversy came about in June of 2015, when South Carolina, the first state to secede from the union, pulled the Confederate … Also, the Southern Historical Society utilized periodicals to convey their context. 15, National Archives. . The Confederate Monument Movement as a Policy Dilemma for. of the Tenn., April 29, 1863, Letters Received by the Adjutant General's Office, microfilm M-619, National Archives, Records of the American Freedmen's Inquiry Commission, Reel 200. Coffin, Reminiscences, p. 637. Olds to Whipple, June 9, 1863, AMA. later declared the regiment to be an Illinois one, the 66th.) Cited hereafter as Eaton, 1863 Report; Memphis Bulletin, Sept. 15, 1863; Lucinda Humphrey to George Whipple, March 7, 1863, AMA; G. N. Carruthers to [Secys. And of continuing, if not adding to, the difficulties under which, the Southern people labour” (Robert E. Lee, 1866). Everybody knows who won the war. Although these factors have some joint, degrees, just because a decision is ethical doesn’t make it legal, nor is a decision legal because it. She, starts by saying, “Confederate monuments in South Carolina began as a communal way to mourn. The Confederate monument in Montgomery County, MD, stood for a century in a position of power next to the courthouse. (2) Public Confederate monuments unavoidably harm at least (i) those who suffer as a result of knowing the racist motivation behind the existence of most Confederate monuments and having those motivations made obvious by public Confederate monuments, and/or (ii) … D. O. McCord and others to Alexander, Aug. 6, 1864, Alexander, Service Record. For example, Clowney, 2013 ar, procedural requirements that would force jurisdictions to reconsider the discriminatory practices, historical narratives and drive “communities to see the past and future in much more diverse, Confederate Generals” according to Lisa Rosenberg of the W, for example, Confederate monuments honoring black veterans that are proposed for South, Carolina Statehouse memorializes hero’s vs bigotry, The reality of these arguments is based on how we as. 10. Applying this method to the U.S. regarding Confederate monuments, 62% of Americans in 2017 approve of keeping these. Slaves were the basis of the Southern economy at that time. Toppling of a Confederate monument in Durham, N.C. Go through each source and identify key points to support your argument on what the Confederacy stood for and/or the monuments’ history and/or the national history since then and/or the politics of today.2. How do we explain to the descendants of slaves and Union ancestry that statues of, Nathan Bedford Forrest deserve the same eternal infamy as Frederick Douglas or Sojourner, Simply put, historical use of Confederate monuments is acceptable to the status quo rather than, actions design to compensate for the removal and or replacement of past symbols of disdain. Throughout history the idea of removing the Confederate Monuments is the popular choice among decision makers, citing that the monuments have a sense of evilness consequently flaring up racial emotions. Should we remove Confederate monuments? The Confederate Army commander’s likeness was the last of four monuments memorializing the insurrection to be withdrawn in a 26-day span, an action that has led to … The painting depicts a wealthy white slaveholder in the act of selling his mixed-race son in a scene strewn with paper money and gold coins. Eaton, 1863 Report. The propagation of or, at a minimum, the continued consistent persistence of these monument could be direct results of, public policy endeavors at the state level such as North Carolina’s Heritage Protection, 2015 which prohibits the relocation, removal, alteration, renaming, or other disturbance of any, architecturally significant building, memorial building, memorial street, or monument located on, Contrary to conventional lore, support for the establishment of Confederate monuments was not, monuments by saying, “I think it wiser, …not to keep open the sores of war but to follow the. Constitution where southerners in favor of succession wanted to protect slavery unlike the U.S. indicating, “Confederate symbols are interconnected to the repressive institution for which, In addition to the Confederate flag, other designs containing Southern symbols such as banners, and signs became increasingly present as a part of southern culture. This outcry led to as many as 19 injuries and, the deaths of 3 people. C. How do people want to remember each event? Eaton, Grant, pp. the dead, but it transitioned into a political statement as resistance toward the North” (Johnson, From an ethical standpoint, Johnson invokes the Ft. Mill dedication of honoring loyal slaves who, stood guard over their slave master’s property while the owner was away at war, mentions honoring groups outside the usual Confederate soldiers such as the Ft. Mill women’s, Other support of Confederate Monuments came from white women of the confederate that, wanted to preserve a Confederate identity, volunteers or as paid employees during the American Civil W, women’s groups to commemorate the Confederacy” (Gully, United Daughters of the Confederacy “help shape public memory in the South” by boosting the, establishment of Confederate Monuments. See Eaton, Grant, pp. We can hardly be surprised that he … No person who fought for the right to keep humans as property is deserving of modern honor. Her main interest centers on judges who ruled in favor of the right of a testator to bequeath freedom and property to the children they sired by their slaves. 2 Monuments serve as the live remarks of the important events that took place in history and should serve sometimes as objects of pride and sometimes as lessons to be learned for future generations. (The War Dept. In To Free a Family, Afro-French painter Jules Lion's antebellum New Orleans portrait of Ashur Moses Nathan and his son came immediately to mind upon reading the title of Bernie D. Jones's book Fathers of Conscience: Mixed-Race Inheritance in the Antebellum South. 9, 1863, ibid. Some scholars see the current waves of activism … That single phrase perfectly sums up what people across the country are attempting to convey, and expresses the main issue that many have with these statues. 25, 1863, OR, Ser. Alexander, Service Record; Alexander, Pension Record, R.G. To do otherwise, they reasoned, "would destroy property rights and imperil everyone's right of ownership" (p. 154). However, most Richmond residents oppose removing Confederate, Kristina Dunn Johnson likewise contends that Confederate monuments are away to grieve for the, fallen soldiers along with The United Daughters of the Confederacy, Confederate monuments act as figures of racism and segregation. Notable people that are commemorated with having models of themselves publicly displayed are usually figures that the people of America are proud of, like Abraham Lincoln or Harriet Tubman. During that period of time, Mary accompanied the family as caregiver and faithful servant. Rules, norms, and decisions: on the conditions of practical and legal, The history of the United Daughters of the Confederacy, Remembering well: Confederate monuments and the ethics of theory, Living Monuments: Confederate Soldiers' Homes in the New South, Standing soldiers, kneeling slaves: Race, war, The International Journal of the History of Sport, Edith D. Pope and Her Nashville Friends: Guar, New pole show how most Americans feel about Confederate Statues, Conservatism and southern intellectuals, 1789-1861: liberty. After the removal of a statue honoring Robert E. Lee, a general in the Confederate Army considered by many to be a hero for the part he played in the American Civil War, a clear divide has formed over whether it was the right thing to do. There is a debate over whether to remove Confederate monuments. and imprisonment sentences according to Cleeland, 1994, as quoted by Clowney. Susan, Peter’s wife, and Mary shared an especially strong bond. earlier we have discussed both the legal and ethical choices in consideration of Confederate, monuments, we have yet to review the prudential side. Eaton to... and present, is identified, placing the commemoration of the American Civil War within a shame-centered framework. Born on August 18, 1818 to Priscilla, an enslaved servant, and an unknown, white father, Mary Walker grew up on the Fairntosh Plantation in central North Carolina. More recently, demonstrators and Black Lives Matter protesters, cost America three lives. Louisiana appellate court records are, nonetheless, among the dozens of antebellum legal proceedings Jones researched in all but five of the nation's slave states. The way we look at confederate statues is influenced by where we grew up and what we learned in history classes. 28. Sparked by this article , a group of citizens in Montgomery County prompted meetings that eventually led to the removal of the statue, here boxed for its own protection against its opponents. Coffin, Reminiscences, p. 637. 12. Schultz, J. Removing Confederate Monuments, The Ethical Debate, Starting with the murder by Dylann Roof in Charleston, South Carolina of nine African, American parishioners at Emanuel African Methodist, symbols of hate, bigotry, top of the State Capitol in South Carolina and the monument of Jefferson Davis at the Jeff Davis, Parkway and Canal Street in New Orleans (Buffington, 2017). Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials is an ongoing process in the United States since the 1960s. - Robert E Lee A hot topic right now in the United States is the removal of Confederate Statues. stood in many parts of the U.S. As of this writing, monument is being unveiled in Crenshaw County, Confederate flags and other civil war memorabilia are increasing in sales. 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