After a thunderclap cost Marcellus his very brief consulship (215 BC) he took care to avoid sight of possible bad omens that might affect his plans. For temples see the List of Ancient Roman temples. The appearance of expected signs resulted in nuntiatio, or if they were unfavourable obnuntiatio. [209] The exta were exposed for litation (divine approval) as part of Roman liturgy, but were "read" in the context of the disciplina Etrusca. A bulla could be as simple as a knotted string of cheap leather or as elaborate as a finely made chain necklace holding a golden locket containing a charm thought to have protective qualities. [438] See Religion in ancient Rome. [537], Superstitio was excessive devotion and enthusiasm in religious observance, in the sense of "doing or believing more than was necessary",[538] or "irregular" religious practice that conflicted with Roman custom. [454], Sacellum, a diminutive from sacer ("belonging to a god"),[455] is a shrine. Pallottino, "Doctrine and Sacred Books," p. 44. For the Catholic concept, see sodality. [295], Libation (Latin libatio, Greek spondai) was one of the simplest religious acts, regularly performed in daily life. [105], The Commentaries of the Augurs were written collections probably of the decreta and responsa of the college of augurs. It implies a kind of favourable pattern in the flight of birds, i.e. Macrobius says vitulari is the equivalent of Greek paianizein (παιανίζειν), "to sing a paean", a song expressing triumph or thanksgiving. See auspicia following and auspice. The precinct was thus "defined and freed" (effatum et liberatum). [216] The word was often used disparagingly by ancient Romans in contrasting these more emotive rites to the highly scripted procedures of public religion,[217] and later by early Christians to deprecate religions other than their own; hence the negative connotation of "fanatic" in English. [236] They continued to be consulted throughout the Imperial period until the time of Christian hegemony. By the Augustan period, fanum, aedes, templum, and delubrum are scarcely distinguishable in usage,[227] but fanum was a more inclusive and general term. Mary Beagon, "Beyond Comparison: M. Sergius. A Roman emperor's dies imperii was the date on which he assumed imperium, that is, the anniversary of his accession as emperor. The ceremony involves them removing their bulla and the tunic they wore through childhood and put on a man’s toga while accompanied by their fathers and other relatives. [478] In some cases, the state assumed the expenses even of sacra privata, if they were regarded as important to the maintenance of the Roman religious system as a whole; see sacra gentilicia following. [230][better source needed]. Dirae were the worst of the five kinds of signs recognized by the augurs, and were a type of oblative or unsought sign that foretold disastrous consequences. A sacrarium was a place where sacred objects (sacra) were stored or deposited for safekeeping. See Vergil's fandi as genitive of fas. The plebeian aediles had their headquarters at the aedes of Ceres. Augustus shared his birthday (September 23) with the anniversary of the Temple of Apollo in the Campus Martius, and elaborated on his connection with Apollo in developing his special religious status.[158]. [277] In specialized usage pertaining to augural procedure, invocatio is a synonym for precatio, but specifically aimed at averting mala, evil occurrences. [444] Varro divides res divinae into three kinds: The schema is Stoic in origin, though Varro has adapted it for his own purposes. "[23], The verb attrectare ("to touch, handle, lay hands on") referred in specialized religious usage to touching sacred objects while performing cultic actions. Some cult formulae are leges: an augur's request for particular signs that would betoken divine approval in an augural rite (augurium), or in the inauguration of magistrates and some sacerdotes is named legum dictio. Sacer describes a thing or person given to the gods, thus "sacred" to them. Hal. Perhaps the best-known Roman altar is the elaborate and Greek-influenced Ara Pacis, which has been called "the most representative work of Augustan art. Feb. ‡ Q. Arrio (III) A. Tullia cos. ‡ MMDCCLXXIV a.u.c. [228], The fanum, Romano-Celtic temple, or ambulatory temple of Roman Gaul was often built over an originally Celtic religious site, and its plan was influenced by the ritual architecture of earlier Celtic sanctuaries. The noun is abominatio, from which English "abomination" derives. [520] In religious use, signum provides a collective term for events or things (including signs and symbols) that designate divine identity, activity or communication, including prodigia, auspicia, omina, portenta and ostenta. [370] The ordo sacerdotum observed and preserved ritual distinctions between divine and human power. In his work On Architecture, Vitruvius always uses the word templum in the technical sense of a space defined through augury, with aedes the usual word for the building itself. [542] Lucretius's famous condemnation of what is often translated as "Superstition" in his Epicurean didactic epic De rerum natura is actually directed at Religio. [400], In the schema of A. Bouché-Leclercq, portenta and ostenta are the two types of signs that appear in inanimate nature, as distinguished from the monstrum (a biological singularity), prodigia (the unique acts or movements of living beings), and a miraculum, a non-technical term that emphasizes the viewer's reaction. Bulla. Res divinae were "divine affairs," that is, the matters that pertained to the gods and the sphere of the divine in contrast to res humanae, "human affairs. It seems to mean variously: the "sacral investiture" of the augur;[27] the ritual acts and actions of the augurs;[28] augural law (ius augurale);[29] and recorded signs whose meaning had already been established. "[188] The result was a locus inauguratus ("inaugurated site"), the most common form of which was the templum. [385] In Latin and other Italic languages, the word seems to have meant "that which is in accord with divine law." At the taking of formally solicited auspices (auspicia impetrativa), the observer was required to acknowledge any potentially bad sign occurring within the templum he was observing, regardless of the interpretation. [247] In other sources, both ancient and modern, fas is thought to have its origin in an Indo-European root meaning "to establish," along with fanum and feriae. One of several words for portent or sign, miraculum is a non-technical term that places emphasis on the observer's response (mirum, "a wonder, marvel"). In essence "a verbal utterance sung for ritualistic purposes", the carmen is characterized by formulaic expression, redundancy, and rhythm. Festus defined municipalia sacra as "those owned originally, before the granting of Roman citizenship; the pontiffs desired that the people continue to observe them and to practice them in the way (mos) they had been accustomed to from ancient times. According to Festus, there were five kinds of auspicia to which augurs paid heed: ex caelo, celestial signs such as thunder and lightning; ex avibus, signs offered by birds; ex tripudiis, signs produced by the actions of certain sacred chickens; ex quadrupedibus, signs from the behavior of four-legged animals; and ex diris, threatening portents. A Roman girl did not have a ceremony signifying her ascent to adulthood. [21], Arbores infelices were those under the protection of chthonic gods or those gods who had the power of turning away misfortune (avertentium). [506] The word is used in Livy III 19, 10 by the critics of the law in this way: "These people postulate they themselves should be sacrosancti, they who do not hold even gods for sacred and saint?"[507]. Thence sancio would mean to render something sacer, i.e. Although in the historical era the Pontifex Maximus was the head of Roman state religion, Festus says[449] that in the ranking of priests, the rex sacrorum was of highest prestige, followed by the flamines maiores. Attrectare had a positive meaning only in reference to the actions of the sacerdotes populi Romani ("priests of the Roman people"). See cinctus gabinus and ager gabinus. [357] Bad omens could be more actively dealt with, by countersigns or spoken formulae. These days were codified into a system of legal public holidays, the feriae publicae, which could be. [419] For particularly serious or difficult cases, the decemviri sacris faciundis could seek guidance and suggestions from the Sibylline Books. [477] Families had their own sacra in the home or at the tombs of their ancestors, such as those pertaining to the Lares, Manes and Penates of the family, and the Parentalia. The masonry temple building of the Gallo-Roman period had a central space (cella) and a peripheral gallery structure, both square. This legacy is conspicuous in European cultural history in its influence on later juridical and religious vocabulary in Europe, particularly of the Western Church. One of the myths attached to Hercules' time in Italy explained why his cult at the Ara Maxima was in the care of the patrician gens Potitia and the gens Pinaria; the diminution of these families by 312 BC caused the sacra to be transferred to the keeping of public slaves and supported with public funding. [575] The related noun Vitulatio was an annual thanksgiving offering carried out by the pontiffs on 8 July, the day after the Nonae Caprotinae. The fata are both "fate" as known and determined by the gods, or the expression of the divine will in the form of verbal oracles. Watching for auspices was called spectio or servare de caelo. Litatio was not a part of divinatory practice as derived from the Etruscans (see extispicy and Liver of Piacenza), but a certification according to Roman liturgy of the gods' approval. [111], The Commentaries of the Pontiffs contained a record of decrees and official proceedings of the College of Pontiffs. In animal sacrifice, the litatio followed on the opening up of the body cavity for the inspection of the entrails (inspicere exta). When a Roman boy was said to have reached adulthood, he laid aside his bulla and the toga praetexta of his childhood and took up the toga virilis in a ceremony that signified him becoming a man and a full Roman citizen. The need for the deity to approve and accept (litare) underscores that the reciprocity of sacrifice (do ut des) was not to be taken for granted.[307]. A tree (arbor) was categorized as felix if it was under the protection of the heavenly gods (di superi). Dies Lustricus: The Day of Purification was the naming ceremony celebrating the child living over a week long. [198] Other forms of religious assimilation appear from the time of Augustus, often in connection with the establishment of the Imperial cult in the provinces. [179] See also Imperial cult: Divus, deus and the numen. [374] This adornment was thus part of the commander's ritual investiture with imperium. Compare verba certa, "fixed words." Its use was one of the numerous religious traditions ascribed to Numa, the Sabine second king of Rome.[326]. Behold the wretchedness and stupidity of mankind: they show honour to a dead tree and despite the commands of the living God; they do not dare to put the branches of a tree into the fire and by an act of sacrilege throw themselves headlong into hell": Valerie M. Warrior, Roman Religion, Cambridge University Press, 2006, p.160. A rite performed by augurs by which the concerned person received the approval of the gods for his appointment or their investiture. [325] The mola was so fundamental to sacrifice that "to put on the mola" (Latin immolare) came to mean "to sacrifice." [557], In both religious and legal usage, verba concepta ("preconceived words") were verbal formulas that could be adapted for particular circumstances. Entrance might be severely restricted: Paulus[308] explains that a capitalis lucus was protected from human access under penalty of death. [558], In the legal sense, concepta verba (the phrase is found with either word order) were the statements crafted by a presiding praetor for the particulars of a case. The indigitamenta were lists of gods maintained by the College of Pontiffs to assure that the correct divine names were invoked for public prayers. According to Livy, every year in the temple of Nortia, the Etruscan counterpart of Fortuna, a nail was driven in to mark the time. [544] By the early 2nd century AD, religions of other peoples that were perceived as resistant to religious assimilation began to be labeled by some Latin authors as superstitio, including druidism, Judaism, and Christianity. [219] The Gallic bishop Caesarius of Arles, writing in the 5th century, indicates that such trees retained their sanctity even up to his own time,[220] and urged the Christian faithful to burn down the arbores fanatici. "[574], A verb meaning chanting or reciting a formula with a joyful intonation and rhythm. [505] Sacer would thus design the religious compact, sanctus the law. An adjective of augural terminology meaning favourable. [237] The emperor Aurelian chastised the senate for succumbing to Christian influence and not consulting the books. [322] Compare monstrum, ostentum, portentum, and prodigium. Within the tripartite structure that was often characteristic of formal ancient prayer, preces would be the final expression of what is sought from the deity, following the invocation and a narrative middle. The meaning of the word is given as guaranteed by an oath by H. Fugier, however Morani thinks it would be more appropriate to understand the first part of the compound as a consequence of the second: sanxit tribunum sacrum the tribune is sanctioned by the law as sacer. Learn more ... • The censor Cn. Both rich and poor Roman parents hung a bulla around their newborn child's neck to protect him or her from misfortune or injury. The "Brothers of the Field" were a college of priests whose duties were concerned with agriculture and farming. Either way, even scarcity of firewood would not persuade them to use the sacred wood for fuel, a scruple for which he mocked them. [181] Do ut des was also a judicial concept of contract law. This use has been invoked to support the derivation of fas from IE root *bha, Latin fari. In the Roman calendar, a dies festus is a festive or holy day, that is, a day dedicated to a deity or deities. "[577], "Prodigium" redirects here. [482] The Claudii had recourse to a distinctive "propudial pig" sacrifice (propudialis porcus, "pig of shame") by way of expiation when they neglected any of their religious obligations. [64] These prescribed rites "unite the inner subject with the external religious object", binding human and divine realms. [356], Omens could be good or bad. [160] As part of a flurry of religious reforms and restorations in the period from 38 BC to 17 AD, no fewer than fourteen temples had their dies natalis moved to another date, sometimes with the clear purpose of aligning them with new Imperial theology after the collapse of the Republic. Main Page | Our Republic | Roman religion | Civic life | The Roman Way | All portals, All articles about civic life in Nova Roma. The verb porricere had the specialized religious meaning "to offer as a sacrifice," especially to offer the sacrificial entrails (exta) to the gods. [381], Because Roman religion was contractual (do ut des), a piaculum might be offered as a sort of advance payment; the Arval Brethren, for instance, offered a piaculum before entering their sacred grove with an iron implement, which was forbidden, as well as after. The sacramentum that renders the soldier sacer helps explain why he was subjected to harsher penalties, such as execution and corporal punishment, that were considered inappropriate for civilian citizens, at least under the Republic. The Latin word derives from a Proto-Indo-European root meaning a libation of wine offered to the gods, as does the Greek verb spendoo and the noun spondai, spondas, and Hittite spant-. The Cultus Deorum Romanorum, cannot be approached by inserting Roman deity names into Greek religion or any other system, for it is a unique product of the culture that created it. Impetrative signs, or those sought by standard augural procedure, were interpreted according to observatio; the observer had little or no latitude in how they might be interpreted. II 21, 23; Appian. As the sign that manifests the divine will,[31] the augurium for a magistrate was valid for a year; a priest's, for his lifetime; for a temple, it was perpetual. Religiosus was something pertaining to the gods or marked out by them as theirs, as distinct from sacer, which was something or someone given to them by humans. Ritual error is a pollutant; it vitiates the performance and risks the gods' anger. The meaning may be "I try and obtain by uttering appropriate words what is my right to obtain." Thus Numa may be seen as carrying out a reform and a reorganisation of the sacra in accord with his own views and his education. It often appears in the feminine plural as a substantive meaning "evil omens." Lustratio: The name of the ceremony performed on the dies lustricus. [44] The type of auspices required for convening public assemblies were impetrativa,[45] and magistrates had the "right and duty" to seek these omens actively. [424], The expiatory burial of living human victims in the Forum Boarium followed Rome's defeat at Cannae in the same wars. The sacrarium of a private home lent itself to Christian transformation, as a 4th-century poem by Ausonius demonstrates;[502] in contemporary Christian usage, the sacrarium is a "special sink used for the reverent disposal of sacred substances" (see piscina).[503]. Although translated in some contexts as "divine law,"[240] fas is more precisely that which is "religiously legitimate,"[241] or an action that is lawful in the eyes of the gods. [156] A public figure might schedule a major event on his birthday: Pompeius Magnus ("Pompey the Great") waited seven months after he returned from his military campaigns in the East before he staged his triumph, so he could celebrate it on his birthday. [60] Because war could bring about religious pollution, it was in itself nefas, "wrong," and could incur the wrath of gods unless iustum, "just". Individual landmarks of religious topography in ancient Rome are not included in this list; see Roman temple. [243] Fas is thus both distinguished from and linked to ius (plural iura), "law, lawfulness, justice," as indicated by Vergil's often-cited phrase fas et iura sinunt, "fas and iura allow (it)," which Servius explains as "divine and human laws permit (it), for fas pertains to religion, iura to the human being. Official rites to Apollo are perhaps "the best illustration of the Graecus ritus in Rome. Related Latin words include femina, "woman" (a person who provides nourishment or suckles); felo, "to suckle"; and filius, "son" (a person suckled). I take technical translation as potentially (but far from actually) non-cultural, [546], Supplicationes are days of public prayer when the men, women, and children of Rome traveled in procession to religious sites around the city praying for divine aid in times of crisis. But the practice may have originated as a kind of "dodge," since a praetor was liable to religious penalties if he used certa verba for legal actions on days marked nefastus on the calendar. ResumeMatch - Sample Resume, Resume Template, Resume Example, Resume Builder,Resume linkedin,Resume Grade,File Convert. Still, in the most ancient Fasti, these days were marked C(omitiales)[336] (days when the Comitia met) suggesting the idea that the whole ritual was a later Greek import. [363] They were consulted until late antiquity; in the 4th century, for instance, the haruspices consulted the books of Tarquinius before the battle that proved fatal to the emperor Julian — according to Ammianus Marcellinus, because he failed to heed them. Christian writers later developed a distinction between miracula, the true forms of which were evidence of divine power in the world, and mere mirabilia, things to be marveled at but not resulting from God's intervention. 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