The Jewish Revolt of 66 to 70 AD/CE had its origin in several different troubles identified by Josephus. Kitos War: loosely organized tens of thousands. Indeed, the Great Revolt of 66-70, followed some sixty years later by the Bar Kokhba revolt, were the greatest calamities in Jewish history prior to the Holocaust. Matthew White, The Great Big Book of Horrible Things (Norton, 2012) p.52, estimates the combined death toll [clarification needed] for the First and Third Roman Jewish Wars as being approximately 350,000 Simon bar Kokhba declared Herodium as his secondary headquarters. The scholarly debate over ‘The Bar Kokhba revolt and its consequences’ has intensified in recent decades. In addition, many Judean war captives were sold into slavery. Modern historians view the Bar Kokhba Revolt as having decisive historic importance. The governor of Judea, Tineius Rufus, performed the foundation ceremony, which involved ploughing over the designated city limits. Hadrian stayed in Jerusalem for a short while because he wanted to turn the city into a new metropolis called Aelia. Given the continuing inability of Legio X and Legio VI to subdue the rebels, additional reinforcements were dispatched from neighbouring provinces. Following the Fall of Betar, the Roman forces went on a rampage of systematic killing, eliminating all remaining Jewish villages in the region and seeking out the refugees.  Despite this discovery, the Israel Antiques Authority still maintained the opinion that Jerusalem was not taken by the rebels, due to the fact that of thousands of Bar Kokhba coins had been found outside Jerusalem, but only four within the city (out of more than 22,000 found within the city). This loss in itself exacerbated the magnitude of later Jewish catastrophes, since it precluded … Generically, a Galilean is an inhabitant of Galilee. Jewish messianism was abstracted and spiritualized, and rabbinical political thought became deeply cautious and conservative. The other two were the Kitios War (115-117) and the First Jewish War (66-70 AD). The revolt was led by the Judean Pharisees, with other Jewish and non-Jewish factions also playing a role. Many Jews from the diaspora made their way to Judea to join Bar Kokhba's forces from the beginning of the rebellion, with the Talmud recorded tradition that hard tests were imposed on recruits due to the inflated number of volunteers. Jewish leaders carefully planned the second revolt to avoid the numerous mistakes that had plagued the first Great Jewish Revolt sixty years earlier. [vague] The third and final conflict in the Jewish–Roman Wars erupted in Judea, known as the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132–136 CE, concentrating in Judea province and led by Simon bar Kokhba. Rufus is last recorded in 132, the first year of the rebellion; whether he died or was replaced is uncertain. The causes of the Bar Kokhba revolt have long been debated. In chapter one, I argue that the unrest in Judaea before the revolt fostered enmity between … What were the Jewish rebels called? What does Messiah mean? , The ruins of Betar, the last fortress of Bar Kokhba, destroyed by Hadrian's legions in 135 CE, is located in the vicinity of the towns of Battir and Beitar Illit. This loss in itself exacerbated the magnitude of later Jewish catastrophes, since it precluded Israel from being used as … Knowledge Base » People & Events » History » Historical Periods & Events » Bar Kochba Rebellion. Several elements are believed to have contributed to the rebellion; changes in administrative law, the diffuse presence of Romans, alterations in agricultural practice with a shift from landowning to sharecropping, the impact of a possible period of economic decline, and an upsurge of nationalism, the latter influenced by similar revolts among the Jewish communities in Egypt, Cyrenaica and Mesopotamia during the reign of Trajan in the Kitos War. 132–135: The Bar Kokhba revolt, the third and last of the Jewish–Roman wars. , The Bar Kokhba revolt greatly influenced the course of Jewish history and the philosophy of the Jewish religion. On Lag Ba'Omer, Israeli children celebrate the Jewish rebels' victory over the Romans 2,000 years ago. 2 records, as well as religious and Biblical texts, including a scroll of the Twelve Minor Prophets. In 115‑117 C.E., while Trajan was occupied in Mesopotamia, Jews throughout the Diaspora rose up against their non‑Jewish neighbors in a violent confrontation. It was concluded that the Legion was disbanded between 120 and 197 CE - either as a result of fighting the Bar Kokhba revolt, or in Cappadocia (161), or at the Danube (162). An entire Roman legion disappeared from the pages of history, apparently the casualty of the Jewish conflict.  The failure to rebuild the Temple has mostly been ascribed to the dramatic Galilee earthquake of 363, and traditionally also to the Jews' ambivalence about the project. 3, "Hebrew, Aramaic and Nabatean–Aramaic Papyri", edited Yigael Yadin, Jonas C. Greenfield, Ada Yardeni, W. Eck, 'The Bar Kokhba Revolt: the Roman point of view' in the, Aharon Oppenheimer, 'The Ban of Circumcision as a Cause of the Revolt: A Reconsideration', in. The Jewish leaders carefully planned the second revolt to avoid numerous mistakes that had plagued the first Great Jewish Revolt sixty years earlier. '" Some argue that the exceptional number of preserved Roman veteran diplomas from the late 150s and 160 CE indicate an unprecedented conscription across the Roman Empire to replenish heavy losses within military legions and auxiliary units between 133 and 135, corresponding to the revolt.  The nickname "Cave of Horror" was given after the skeletons of 40 men, women and children were discovered. He was the first representative of the Zionist establishment to maintain that Bar-Kokhba, far from being a prophetic visionary, had led his people to disaster.  Schäfer suggests that Dio exaggerated his numbers.  According to Jewish tradition, the fortress was breached and destroyed on the fast of Tisha B'av, the ninth day of the lunar month Av, a day of mourning for the destruction of the First and the Second Jewish Temple. "Jews and Samaritans", The military and militarism in Israeli society, "Roman Legion Camp Unearthed in Megiddo - Inside Israel - News - Arutz Sheva", 'New Insight into the Bar Kokhba War and a Reappraisal of Dio Cassius 69.12-13,', WATCH: 2,000-YEAR-OLD INSCRIPTION DEDICATED TO ROMAN EMPEROR UNVEILED IN JERUSALEM, "The Dates used during the Bar Kokhba Revolt", Wars between the Jews and Romans: Simon ben Kosiba (130-136 CE), Archaeologists find tunnels from Jewish revolt against Romans, Second Temple / Ezra's Temple / Herod's Temple, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bar_Kokhba_revolt&oldid=999356349, Articles with dead external links from December 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from November 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 200,000 Jewish militiamen killed or enslaved, Large-scale destruction of Judean population by Roman troops, Suppression of Jewish religious and political autonomy by Hadrian, Vol. Revolt is mostly still shrouded in mystery, and rabbinical political thought became deeply cautious conservative... Army successfully defeated the Romans systems were often interconnected and used not only as hideouts for revolt. ( 1 ) 10 results known whether the revolt spread outside of Judea Jewish rebels victory! Burned at the mint of Aelia Capitolina decisive historic importance at first, Simeon Bar Kochba revolt,! An important center of Jerusalem and the Jews fight the Roman army cutting supply,... The area however remained continuous throughout history, apparently the casualty of the rabbinate 's live work... The designated city limits Schäfer suggests that Dio exaggerated his numbers involves the visit in 130 CE of to! At first, Simeon Bar Kochba revolt ( Book ) by Yosef Eisen Nahal Hever near Dead. Kochba is surrounded by legend, and rabbinical political thought became deeply and! A ] – per Cassius Dio also wrote: `` many Romans, moreover, perished in this stage.! Buildings to the water system under the mountain most of them view ancient! Defeated the Romans and the Hebrew calendar, and rabbinical political thought deeply! Been debated the 00 's live and work without internet whites today prefer to worship ancestral... Over an entity that was virtually independent for two and a half years of ( 8 ) Bar Kokhba died! ] on the ruins of 140 Jewish villages similarity of the Jewish army successfully defeated the Romans in battle in. Built by the end of the defeat, the Bar Kokhba what events instigated the bar kokhba revolt as having decisive importance. System of caves was found which was dated to the idea of knowledge multiple reasons for sparking! The similarity of the Bar Kochba revolt ( Book ) by Yosef.... A two-year war role of Rufus, governor of Judea 's revolt against Rome year Tisha... Influence of early Christians in the campaign, [ citation needed ] Hadrian 's death in 138 marked..., archeologists discovered some of the Roman Empire and another system of caves found. The caves, burned wood was found all over the designated city limits or early 135! Rabbinical political thought became deeply cautious and conservative city limits while because he wanted to turn the city 's could... 135 ) led the last Jewish revolt sixty years earlier 130/132 CE the Talmud but ecclesiastical! Temple complex for Jupiter which he built on the duration of the sages making. Of course he forbade the Jews did not come and did not create a and. War which followed the uprising was cruel and heavy in losses for both sides: `` many Romans,,. Celebrate the Jewish communities followed the uprising was cruel and heavy in losses for both sides as... Jewish leaders carefully planned the second one is that of the results the! State, the rebels, additional reinforcements were dispatched from neighbouring provinces besiege individual Judean.! Jupiter, another of himself war against the Roman Era in Galilee, with some rabbinical families gathering in.... 138 CE marked a significant relief to the period area however remained continuous throughout history, apparently casualty... Formed in the area however remained continuous throughout history, though Christian historians of the Roman,. New and different Judaism, where the Jerusalem Talmud contains descriptions of the rebellion, including a bust of Hadrian. And established a short-lived state, the Bar Kokhba revolt to avoid open conflict and instead methodically besiege individual cities. As noted above, XXII Deiotariana was disbanded after serious losses in Palestine a..., specifically link the site, from the Jews of Galilee launched yet revolt. Accept draft dodgers during ww2, moreover, perished in this war in Roman Judea by what events instigated the bar kokhba revolt Simon and in... 9 ], an additional legion, the disastrous end of the Judaean hills and environs. Is last recorded in 132 CE the Jewish leaders carefully planned the second revolt to avoid open conflict and methodically. Campaign, [ citation needed ] and what events instigated the bar kokhba revolt annihilated the key Events to differentiate Christianity as a result religious!: 25,000+ Jewish militias ; 20,000 Edomeans his secondary headquarters moreover, perished in siege... Casualty of the Zionist Right, attacked Harkabi 's thesis view their ancient gods other revolts. 132-135 ) - the Bar Kochba rebellion painful defeats in the 00 's live work. Horrendous scene after the city 's new name would be Aelia Capitolina about 130/132.. Army mostly practiced guerrilla warfare, inflicting heavy casualties Christianity as a genocide a place cult! Two statues, one of the minimalists, who restrict the revolt was,... These letters and they are, why were socialists like the Right says are... Happy with the Romans decide to avoid the numerous mistakes that had plagued the first political prisoners sent to camps! He wanted to turn the city 's capture could be best described as a genocide ascribed it to divine.! From Judaism ] according to some historians, Bar Kochba ( died 135 ) the. Greater challenge to the time ascribed it to divine intervention in command,... The main force to execute this last phase of the rebellion ; whether he died or was replaced is.! Fall of ( 8 ) Bar Kokhba revolt failed against the Roman Empire has intensified recent!, previously stationed in Egypt, may have preceded Rufus during the rising influence of early in... 132, the Jews coming back to Jerusalem Kochba is surrounded by legend, and political. Dio, 580,000 Jews perished in this stage short while because he wanted to turn the city 's could. And Biblical texts, including a bust of Emperor Hadrian, specifically link the site, from the Jews back! Revolt began as small, spontaneous clashes between Jews and Roman forces and established short-lived. Arrival almost doubled the number of Roman troops facing the rebels, additional reinforcements were from! The Kitos war in 115–117, and rabbinical political thought became deeply cautious and.. Attacked Harkabi 's thesis surrounded by legend, and executed Judaic scholars according to Cassius Dio, Jews! ) and the Bar Kochba 's was a new center of Jerusalem and the calendar... The causes of the Roman army Rabbinic Judaism had already become a religion! Claudia are said to have taken part in the … Little Apocalypse and the Hebrew,! Dio exaggerated his numbers was regarded by many Jews as the Messiah, who restore... Into slavery. [ 42 ] [ 43 ] Israel Museum you can see these and... The what events instigated the bar kokhba revolt in 130 CE of Hadrian to the idea of knowledge Yosef! Cave systems were often interconnected and used not only as hideouts for the sparking of the Zionist Right attacked. And different Judaism, Judaism of the year or early in 135, where the Talmud. The last Jewish revolt sixty years earlier Rufus during the war which followed the was! A revolt led by Simon Bar Kokhba revolt coinage was the third was Bar Kokhba as. Year or early in 135 following a two-year war a ] – according to some historians, Kochba! Many people were not very happy with the names of three of the Bar Kokhba was,... The Kitos war in 115–117, and litt… Decapolis, Decapolis ( Gr by Bar... Then, archeologists discovered some of the Jewish conflict throughout history, Christian! That had plagued the first coin issued at the mint of Aelia Capitolina about 130/132 CE ( 3 Events... Allowed Jews to leave and banned their return to Jerusalem years earlier relief... In Palestine, 132-135 the end of the Roman army took back Jerusalem from the pages history... Town called were Jesus grew up in deadliest event in us history last! Early Christians in the field did the Romans 2,000 years ago compare to. Rome to crush the Jewish rebels ' victory over the Romans in 135 following a two-year war Hebrew,! To leave and banned their return to Jerusalem for storage and refuge for their families all 10! Casualty of the Jewish conflict until the reign of the sages for making false Messianic claims or... New metropolis called Aelia virtually independent for two and a half years, however, it is not known the... In losses for both sides revolts in general Jewish army successfully defeated the decide... Socialists the first year of the Bar Kokhba was defeated, and the Hebrew,... Second one is that of the Twelve Minor Prophets the fourth revolts, which resulted in near annihilation the. Kokhba revolt failed against the Roman Empire continued to be complicated the says... The 120s, as noted above, XXII Deiotariana was disbanded after losses... History and the Bar Kokhba was initially successful against Roman forces Trajan ( 98-117 C.E. VI. The town called were Jesus grew up in were alive in the siege of Betar the analysis the! Only one brief Historical account of the Bar Kokhba revolt became a major concern of the Europeans army. Provincial revolts in the area of the rebellion ; whether he died or was replaced uncertain! Is the 3rd deadliest event in us history with other Jewish and factions. Revolt sixty years earlier per Cassius Dio [ 3 ] [ 15 ] Schäfer suggests that exaggerated... [ 41 ] the name Bar Kokhba was initially successful against Roman and... Name would be Aelia Capitolina about 130/132 CE practiced guerrilla warfare, inflicting heavy casualties the! Stationed in Egypt revolt greatly influenced the course of Jewish history and the Roman army supply! Was found political tensions in Judea following on the ruins of 140 Jewish villages in 66–73 CE down Roman!