What is side-by-side execution? Can two application one using private assembly and other using Shared assembly be stated as a side-by-side executables? Side-by-side execution is the ability to run multiple versions of an application or component on the same computer. You can have multiple versions of the common language runtime, and multiple versions of applications and components that use a version of the runtime, on the same computer at the same time. Since versioning is only applied to shared assemblies, and not to private assemblies, two application one using private assembly and one using shared assembly cannot be stated as side-by-side executables.
Why string are called Immutable data Type ? The memory representation of string is an Array of Characters, So on re-assigning the new array of Char is formed & the start address is changed . Thus keeping the Old string in Memory for Garbage Collector to be disposed.
What does assert() method do? In debug compilation, assert takes in a Boolean condition as a parameter, and shows the error dialog if the condition is false. The program proceeds without any interruption if the condition is true.
What’s the difference between the Debug class and Trace class? Documentation looks the same. Use Debug class for debug builds, use Trace class for both debug and release builds.
Why are there five tracing levels in System.Diagnostics.TraceSwitcher? The tracing dumps can be quite verbose. For applications that are constantly running you run the risk of overloading the machine and the hard drive. Five levels range from None to Verbose, allowing you to fine-tune the tracing activities.
Where is the output of TextWriterTraceListener redirected? To the Console or a text file depending on the parameter passed to the constructor.
How do assemblies find each other? By searching directory paths. There are several factors which can affect the path (such as the AppDomain host, and application configuration files), but for private assemblies the search path is normally the application’s directory and its sub-directories. For shared assemblies, the search path is normally same as the private assembly path plus the shared assembly cache.
How does assembly versioning work? Each assembly has a version number called the compatibility version. Also each reference to an assembly (from another assembly) includes both the name and version of the referenced assembly.The version number has four numeric parts (e.g. 188.8.131.52). Assemblies with either of the first two parts different are normally viewed as incompatible. If the first two parts are the same, but the third is different, the assemblies are deemed as ‘maybe compatible’. If only the fourth part is different, the assemblies are deemed compatible. However, this is just the default guideline – it is the version policy that decides to what extent these rules are enforced. The version policy can be specified via the application configuration file.
What is garbage collection? Garbage collection is a system whereby a run-time component takes responsibility for managing the lifetime of objects and the heap memory that they occupy. This concept is not new to .NET – Java and many other languages/runtimes have used garbage collection for some time.
Why doesn’t the .NET runtime offer deterministic destruction? Because of the garbage collection algorithm. The .NET garbage collector works by periodically running through a list of all the objects that are currently being referenced by an application. All the objects that it doesn’t find during this search are ready to be destroyed and the memory reclaimed. The implication of this algorithm is that the runtime doesn’t get notified immediately when the final reference on an object goes away – it only finds out during the next sweep of the heap. Futhermore, this type of algorithm works best by performing the garbage collection sweep as rarely as possible. Normally heap exhaustion is the trigger for a collection sweep.
Is the lack of deterministic destruction in .NET a problem? It’s certainly an issue that affects component design. If you have objects that maintain expensive or scarce resources (e.g. database locks), you need to provide some way for the client to tell the object to release the resource when it is done. Microsoft recommend that you provide a method called Dispose() for this purpose. However, this causes problems for distributed objects – in a distributed system who calls the Dispose() method? Some form of reference-counting or ownership-management mechanism is needed to handle distributed objects – unfortunately the runtime offers no help with this.
What is serialization? Serialization is the process of converting an object into a stream of bytes. Deserialization is the opposite process of creating an object from a stream of bytes. Serialization / Deserialization is mostly used to transport objects (e.g. during remoting), or to persist objects (e.g. to a file or database).
Does the .NET Framework have in-built support for serialization? There are two separate mechanisms provided by the .NET class library – XmlSerializer and SoapFormatter/BinaryFormatter. Microsoft uses XmlSerializer for Web Services, and uses SoapFormatter/BinaryFormatter for remoting. Both are available for use in your own code.
Can I customise the serialization process? Yes. XmlSerializer supports a range of attributes that can be used to configure serialization for a particular class. For example, a field or property can be marked with the [XmlIgnore] attribute to exclude it from serialization. Another example is the [XmlElement] attribute, which can be used to specify the XML element name to be used for a particular property or field. Serialization via SoapFormatter/BinaryFormatter can also be controlled to some extent by attributes. For example, the [NonSerialized] attribute is the equivalent of XmlSerializer’s [XmlIgnore] attribute. Ultimate control of the serialization process can be acheived by implementing the the ISerializable interface on the class whose instances are to be serialized.
Why is XmlSerializer so slow? There is a once-per-process-per-type overhead with XmlSerializer. So the first time you serialize or deserialize an object of a given type in an application, there is a significant delay. This normally doesn’t matter, but it may mean, for example, that XmlSerializer is a poor choice for loading configuration settings during startup of a GUI application.
Why do I get errors when I try to serialize a Hashtable? XmlSerializer will refuse to serialize instances of any class that implements IDictionary, e.g. Hashtable. SoapFormatter and BinaryFormatter do not have this restriction.
What are attributes? There are at least two types of .NET attribute. The first type I will refer to as a metadata attribute – it allows some data to be attached to a class or method. This data becomes part of the metadata for the class, and (like other class metadata) can be accessed via reflection. The other type of attribute is a context attribute. Context attributes use a similar syntax to metadata attributes but they are fundamentally different. Context attributes provide an interception mechanism whereby instance activation and method calls can be pre- and/or post-processed.
How does CAS work? The CAS security policy revolves around two key concepts – code groups and permissions. Each .NET assembly is a member of a particular code group, and each code group is granted the permissions specified in a named permission set. For example, using the default security policy, a control downloaded from a web site belongs to the ‘Zone – Internet’ code group, which adheres to the permissions defined by the ‘Internet’ named permission set. (Naturally the ‘Internet’ named permission set represents a very restrictive range of permissions.)
Who defines the CAS code groups? Microsoft defines some default ones, but you can modify these and even create your own. To see the code groups defined on your system, run ‘caspol -lg’ from the command-line. On my system it looks like this: Level = Machine Code Groups: 1. All code: Nothing 1.1. Zone – MyComputer: FullTrust 1.1.1. Honor SkipVerification requests: SkipVerification 1.2. Zone – Intranet: LocalIntranet 1.3. Zone – Internet: Internet 1.4. Zone – Untrusted: Nothing 1.5. Zone – Trusted: Internet 1.6. StrongName – 0024000004800000940000000602000000240000525341310004000003 000000CFCB3291AA715FE99D40D49040336F9056D7886FED46775BC7BB5430BA4444FEF8348EBD06 F962F39776AE4DC3B7B04A7FE6F49F25F740423EBF2C0B89698D8D08AC48D69CED0FC8F83B465E08 07AC11EC1DCC7D054E807A43336DDE408A5393A48556123272CEEEE72F1660B71927D38561AABF5C AC1DF1734633C602F8F2D5: Note the hierarchy of code groups – the top of the hierarchy is the most general (‘All code’), which is then sub-divided into several groups, each of which in turn can be sub-divided. Also note that (somewhat counter-intuitively) a sub-group can be associated with a more permissive permission set than its parent.
How do I define my own code group? Use caspol. For example, suppose you trust code from www.mydomain.com and you want it have full access to your system, but you want to keep the default restrictions for all other internet sites. To achieve this, you would add a new code group as a sub-group of the ‘Zone – Internet’ group, like this: caspol -ag 1.3 -site www.mydomain.com FullTrust Now if you run caspol -lg you will see that the new group has been added as group 1.3.1: 1.3. Zone – Internet: Internet 1.3.1. Site – www.mydomain.com: FullTrust Note that the numeric label (1.3.1) is just a caspol invention to make the code groups easy to manipulate from the command-line. The underlying runtime never sees it.