.Net Interview Questions Part 4

By | April 28, 2014

 1. What is .NET Framework? The .NET Framework has two main components: the common language runtime and  the .NET Framework class library You can think of the runtime as an agent that manages code at execution time providing core services such as memory management, thread management, and remoting, while also enforcing strict type safety and other forms of code accuracy that ensure security and robustness. The class library, is a comprehensive, object-oriented collection of reusable types that you can use to develop applications ranging from traditional command-line or graphical user interface (GUI) applications to applications based on the latest innovations provided by ASP.NET, such as Web Forms and XML Web services.  2. What is CLR? The CLS is simply a specification that defines the rules to support language integration in such a way that programs written in any language, yet can interoperate with one another, taking full advantage of inheritance, polymorphism, exceptions, and other features. These rules and the specification are documented in the ECMA proposed standard document, “Partition I Architecture”, available here.  3. Is .NET a runtime service or a development platform? Ans: It’s both and actually a lot more. Microsoft .NET includes a new way of delivering software and services to businesses and consumers. A part of Microsoft.NET is the .NET Frameworks. The .NET frameworks SDK consists of two parts: the .NET common language runtime and the .NET class library. In addition, the SDK also includes command-line compilers for C#, C++, JScript, and VB. You use these compilers to build applications and components. These components require the runtime to execute so this is a development platform.  4. What are the new features of Framework 1.1 ? 1. Native Support for Developing Mobile Web Applications 2. Enable Execution of Windows Forms Assemblies Originating from the Internet Assemblies originating from the Internet zone—for example, Microsoft Windows® Forms controls embedded in an Internet-based Web page or Windows Forms assemblies hosted on an Internet Web server and loaded either through the Web browser or programmatically using the System.Reflection.Assembly.LoadFrom() method—now receive sufficient permission to execute in a semi-trusted manner. Default security policy has been changed so that assemblies assigned by the common language runtime (CLR) to the Internet zone code group now receive the constrained permissions associated with the Internet permission set. In the .NET Framework 1.0 Service Pack 1 and Service Pack 2, such applications received the permissions associated with the Nothing permission set and could not execute. 3. Enable Code Access Security for ASP.NET Applications Systems administrators can now use code access security to further lock down the permissions granted to ASP.NET Web applications and Web services. Although the operating system account under which an application runs imposes security restrictions on the application, the code access security system of the CLR can enforce additional restrictions on selected application resources based on policies specified by systems administrators. You can use this feature in a shared server environment (such as an Internet service provider (ISP) hosting multiple Web applications on one server) to isolate separate applications from one another, as well as with stand-alone servers where you want applications to run with the minimum necessary privileges. 4. Native Support for Communicating with ODBC and Oracle Databases 5. Unified Programming Model for Smart Client Application Development The Microsoft .NET Compact Framework brings the CLR, Windows Forms controls, and other .NET Framework features to small devices. The .NET Compact Framework supports a large subset of the .NET Framework class library optimized for small devices. 6. Support for IPv6 The .NET Framework 1.1 supports the emerging update to the Internet Protocol, commonly referred to as IP version 6, or simply IPv6. This protocol is designed to significantly increase the address space used to identify communication endpoints in the Internet to accommodate its ongoing growth. http://msdn.microsoft.com/netframework/technologyinfo/Overview/whatsnew.aspx  5. What is Code Access Security (CAS)? CAS is the part of the .NET security model that determines whether or not a piece of code is allowed to run, and what resources it can use when it is running. For example, it is CAS that will prevent a .NET web applet from formatting your hard disk. How does CAS work? The CAS security policy revolves around two key concepts – code groups and permissions. Each .NET assembly is a member of a particular code group, and each code group is granted the permissions specified in a named permission set. For example, using the default security policy, a control downloaded from a web site belongs to the ‘Zone – Internet’ code group, which adheres to the permissions defined by the ‘Internet’ named permission set. (Naturally the ‘Internet’ named permission set represents a very restrictive range of permissions.) Who defines the CAS code groups? Microsoft defines some default ones, but you can modify these and even create your own. To see the code groups defined on your system, run ‘caspol -lg’ from the command-line. On my ssystem it looks like this: 6. Level = Machine 7. Code Groups: 8. 9. 1.  All code: Nothing 10. 1.1.  Zone – MyComputer: FullTrust 11. 1.1.1.  Honor SkipVerification requests: SkipVerification 12. 1.2.  Zone – Intranet: LocalIntranet 13. 1.3.  Zone – Internet: Internet 14. 1.4.  Zone – Untrusted: Nothing 15. 1.5.  Zone – Trusted: Internet 16. 1.6.  StrongName – Note the hierarchy of code groups – the top of the hierarchy is the most general (‘All code’), which is then sub-divided into several groups, each of which in turn can be sub-divided. Also note that (somewhat counter-intuitively) a sub-group can be associated with a more permissive permission set than its parent. How do I define my own code group? Use caspol. For example, suppose you trust code from www.mydomain.com and you want it have full access to your system, but you want to keep the default restrictions for all other internet sites. To achieve this, you would add a new code group as a sub- group of the ‘Zone – Internet’ group, like this: caspol -ag 1.3 -site www.mydomain.com FullTrust Now if you run caspol -lg you will see that the new group has been added as group 1.3.1: … 1.3. Zone – Internet: Internet 1.3.1. Site – www.mydomain.com: FullTrust … Note that the numeric label (1.3.1) is just a caspol invention to make the code groups easy to manipulate from the command-line. The underlying runtime never sees it. How do I change the permission set for a code group? Use caspol. If you are the machine administrator, you can operate at the ‘machine’ level – which means not only that the changes you make become the default for the machine, but also that users cannot change the permissions to be more permissive. If you are a normal (non-admin) user you can still modify the permissions, but only to make them more restrictive. For example, to allow intranet code to do what it likes you might do this: caspol -cg 1.2 FullTrust Note that because this is more permissive than the default policy (on a standard system), you should only do this at the machine level – doing it at the user level will have no effect. Can I create my own permission set? Yes. Use caspol -ap, specifying an XML file containing the permissions in the permission set. To save you some time, here is a sample file corresponding to the ‘Everything’ permission set – just edit to suit your needs. When you have edited the sample, add it to the range of available permission sets like this: caspol -ap samplepermset.xml Then, to apply the permission set to a code group, do something like this: caspol -cg 1.3 SamplePermSet (By default, 1.3 is the ‘Internet’ code group) I’m having some trouble with CAS. How can I diagnose my problem? Caspol has a couple of options that might help. First, you can ask caspol to tell you what code group an assembly belongs to, using caspol -rsg. Similarly, you can ask what permissions are being applied to a particular assembly using caspol -rsp. I can’t be bothered with all this CAS stuff. Can I turn it off? Yes, as long as you are an administrator. Just run: caspol -s off  20. What is MSIL, IL? When compiling to managed code, the compiler translates your source code into Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL), which is a CPU-independent set of instructions that can be efficiently converted to native code. MSIL includes instructions for loading, storing, initializing, and calling methods on objects, as well as instructions for arithmetic and logical operations, control flow, direct memory access, exception handling, and other operations. Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) is a language used as the output of a number of compilers and as the input to a just-in-time (JIT) compiler . The common language runtime includes a JIT compiler for converting MSIL to native code.  22. What is CTS? The common type system defines how types are declared, used, and managed in the runtime, and is also an important part of the runtime’s support for cross-language integration. The common type system supports two general categories of types, each of which is further divided into subcategories: ∙ Value types Value types directly contain their data, and instances of value types are either allocated on the stack or allocated inline in a structure. Value types can be built-in (implemented by the runtime), user-defined, or enumerations. ∙ Reference types Reference types store a reference to the value’s memory address, and are allocated on the heap. Reference types can be self-describing types, pointer types, or interface types. The type of a reference type can be determined from values of self-describing types. Self-describing types are further split into arrays and class types. The class types are user-defined classes, boxed value types, and delegates. 23. What is JIT (just in time)? how it works? Before Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) can be executed, it must be converted by a .NET Framework just-in-time (JIT) compiler to native code , which is CPU-specific code that runs on the same computer architecture as the JIT compiler. Rather than using time and memory to convert all the MSIL in a portable executable (PE) file to native code, it converts the MSIL as it is needed during execution and stores the resulting native code so that it is accessible for subsequent calls. The runtime supplies another mode of compilation called install-time code generation. The install-time code generation mode converts MSIL to native code just as the regular JIT compiler does, but it converts larger units of code at a time, storing the resulting native code for use when the assembly is subsequently loaded and executed. As part of compiling MSIL to native code, code must pass a verification process unless an administrator has established a security policy that allows code to bypass verification. Verification examines MSIL and metadata to find out whether the code can be determined to be type safe , which means that it is known to access only the memory locations it is authorized to access.  24. What is strong name? A name that consists of an assembly’s identity—its simple text name, version number, and culture information (if provided)—strengthened by a public key and a digital signature generated over the assembly.  25. What is portable executable (PE)? The file format defining the structure that all executable files (EXE) and Dynamic Link Libraries (DLL) must use to allow them to be loaded and executed by Windows. PE is derived from the Microsoft Common Object File Format (COFF). The EXE and DLL files created using the .NET Framework obey the PE/COFF formats and also add additional header and data sections to the files that are only used by the CLR. The specification for the PE/COFF file formats is available at http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/hwdev/hardware/pecoffdown.mspx  26. Which namespace is the base class for .net Class library? Ans: system.object 27. What is Event – Delegate? clear syntax for writing a event delegate The event keyword lets you specify a delegate that will be called upon the occurrence of some “event” in your code. The delegate can have one or more associated methods that will be called when your code indicates that the event has occurred. An event in one program can be made available to other programs that target the .NET Framework Common Language Runtime. 42. What are object pooling and connection pooling and difference? Where do we set the Min and Max Pool size for connection pooling? Object pooling is a COM+ service that enables you to reduce the overhead of creating each object from scratch. When an object is activated, it is pulled from the pool. When the object is deactivated, it is placed back into the pool to await the next request. You can configure object pooling by applying the ObjectPoolingAttribute attribute to a class that derives from the System.EnterpriseServices.ServicedComponent class. Object pooling lets you control the number of connections you use , as opposed to connection pooling, where you control the maximum number reached . Following are important differences between object pooling and connection pooling: ∙ Creation. When using connection pooling, creation is on the same thread, so if there is nothing in the pool, a connection is created on your behalf. With object pooling, the pool might decide to create a new object. However, if you have already reached your maximum, it instead gives you the next available object. This is crucial behavior when it takes a long time to create an object, but you do not use it for very long. ∙ Enforcement of minimums and maximums. This is not done in connection pooling. The maximum value in object pooling is very important when trying to scale your application. You might need to multiplex thousands of requests to just a few objects. (TPC/C benchmarks rely on this.) COM+ object pooling is identical to what is used in .NET Framework managed SQL Client connection pooling. For example, creation is on a different thread and minimums and maximums are enforced.  43. What is Application Domain? The primary purpose of the AppDomain is to isolate an application from other applications . Win32 processes provide isolation by having distinct memory address spaces. This is effective, but it is expensive and doesn’t scale well. The .NET runtime enforces AppDomain isolation by keeping control over the use of memory – all memory in the AppDomain is managed by the .NET runtime, so the runtime can ensure that AppDomains do not access each other’s memory. Objects in different application domains communicate either by transporting copies of objects across application domain boundaries, or by using a proxy to exchange messages. MarshalByRefObject is the base class for objects that communicate across application domain boundaries by exchanging messages using a proxy. Objects that do not inherit from MarshalByRefObject are implicitly marshal by value. When a remote application references a marshal by value object, a copy of the object is passed across application domain boundaries. How does an AppDomain get created? AppDomains are usually created by hosts. Examples of hosts are the Windows Shell, ASP.NET and IE. When you run a .NET application from the command-line, the host is the Shell. The Shell creates a new AppDomain for every application. AppDomains can also be explicitly created by .NET applications. Here is a C# sample which creates an AppDomain, creates an instance of an object inside it, and then executes one of the object’s methods. Note that you must name the executable ‘appdomaintest.exe’ for this code to work as-is. 44. What is serialization in .NET? What are the ways to control serialization? Serialization is the process of converting an object into a stream of bytes. Deserialization is the opposite process of creating an object from a stream of bytes. Serialization/Deserialization is mostly used to transport objects (e.g. during remoting), or to persist objects (e.g. to a file or database).Serialization can be defined as the process of storing the state of an object to a storage medium. During this process, the public and private fields of the object and the name of the class, including the assembly containing the class, are converted to a stream of bytes, which is then written to a data stream. When the object is subsequently deserialized, an exact clone of the original object is created. ∙ Binary serialization preserves type fidelity, which is useful for preserving the state of an object between different invocations of an application. For example, you can share an object between different applications by serializing it to the clipboard. You can serialize an object to a stream, disk, memory, over the network, and so forth. Remoting uses serialization to pass objects “by value” from one computer or application domain to another. ∙ XML serialization serializes only public properties and fields and does not preserve type fidelity. This is useful when you want to provide or consume data without restricting the application that uses the data. Because XML is an open standard, it is an attractive choice for sharing data across the Web. SOAP is an open standard, which makes it an attractive choice. There are two separate mechanisms provided by the .NET class library – XmlSerializer and SoapFormatter/BinaryFormatter. Microsoft uses XmlSerializer for Web Services, and uses SoapFormatter/BinaryFormatter for remoting. Both are available for use in your own code. Why do I get errors when I try to serialize a Hashtable? XmlSerializer will refuse to serialize instances of any class that implements IDictionary, e.g. Hashtable. SoapFormatter and BinaryFormatter do not have this restriction. 45. What is the use of trace utility? ** 46. What are server controls? ASP.NET server controls are components that run on the server and encapsulate user- interface and other related functionality. They are used in ASP.NET pages and in ASP.NET code-behind classes. 47. What is the difference between Web User Control and Web Custom Control? Custom Controls Web custom controls are compiled components that run on the server and that encapsulate user-interface and other related functionality into reusable packages. They can include all the design-time features of standard ASP.NET server controls, including full support for Visual Studio design features such as the Properties window, the visual designer, and the Toolbox. There are several ways that you can create Web custom controls: ∙ You can compile a control that combines the functionality of two or more existing controls . For example, if you need a control that encapsulates a button and a text box, you can create it by compiling the existing controls together. ∙ If an existing server control almost meets your requirements but lacks some required features, you can customize the control by deriving from it and overriding its properties, methods, and events . ∙ If none of the existing Web server controls (or their combinations) meet your requirements, you can create a custom control by deriving from one of the base control classes . These classes provide all the basic functionality of Web server controls, so you can focus on programming the features you need. If none of the existing ASP.NET server controls meet the specific requirements of your applications, you can create either a Web user control or a Web custom control that encapsulates the functionality you need. The main difference between the two controls lies in ease of creation vs. ease of use at design time. Web user controls are easy to make, but they can be less convenient to use in advanced scenarios. You develop Web user controls almost exactly the same way that you develop Web Forms pages. Like Web Forms, user controls can be created in the visual designer, they can be written with code separated from the HTML, and they can handle execution events. However, because Web user controls are compiled dynamically at run time they cannot be added to the Toolbox, and they are represented by a simple placeholder glyph when added to a page. This makes Web user controls harder to use if you are accustomed to full Visual Studio .NET design- time support, including the Properties window and Design view previews. Also, the only way to share the user control between applications is to put a separate copy in each application, which takes more maintenance if you make changes to the control. Web custom controls are compiled code, which makes them easier to use but more difficult to create; Web custom controls must be authored in code. Once you have created the control, however, you can add it to the Toolbox and display it in a visual designer with full Properties window support and all the other design-time features of ASP.NET server controls. In addition, you can install a single copy of the Web custom control in the global assembly cache and share it between applications, which makes maintenance easier. Web user controls Web custom controls Easier to create Harder to create Limited support for consumers who use a visual design tool Full visual design tool support for consumers A separate copy of the control is required in each application Only a single copy of the control is required, in the global assembly cache Cannot be added to the Toolbox in Visual Studio Can be added to the Toolbox in Visual Studio Good for static layout Good for dynamic layout  48. What is exception handling? When an exception occurs, the system searches for the nearest catch clause that can handle the exception, as determined by the run-time type of the exception. First, the current method is searched for a lexically enclosing try statement, and the associated catch clauses of the try statement are considered in order. If that fails, the method that called the current method is searched for a lexically enclosing try statement that encloses the point of the call to the current method. This search continues until a catch clause is found that can handle the current exception, by naming an exception class that is of the same class, or a base class, of the run-time type of the exception being thrown. A catch clause that doesn’t name an exception class can handle any exception. Once a matching catch clause is found, the system prepares to transfer control to the first statement of the catch clause. Before execution of the catch clause begins, the system first executes, in order, any finally clauses that were associated with try statements more nested that than the one that caught the exception. Exceptions that occur during destructor execution are worth special mention. If an exception occurs during destructor execution, and that exception is not caught, then the execution of that destructor is terminated and the destructor of the base class (if any) is called. If there is no base class (as in the case of the object type) or if there is no base class destructor, then the exception is discarded.  49. What is Assembly? Assemblies are the building blocks of .NET Framework applications; they form the fundamental unit of deployment, version control, reuse, activation scoping, and security permissions. An assembly is a collection of types and resources that are built to work together and form a logical unit of functionality. An assembly provides the common language runtime with the information it needs to be aware of type implementations. To the runtime, a type does not exist outside the context of an assembly. Assemblies are a fundamental part of programming with the .NET Framework. An assembly performs the following functions: ∙ It contains code that the common language runtime executes. Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) code in a portable executable (PE) file will not be executed if it does not have an associated assembly manifest. Note that each assembly can have only one entry point (that is, DllMain, WinMain, or Main). ∙ It forms a security boundary . An assembly is the unit at which permissions are requested and granted. ∙ It forms a type boundary . Every type’s identity includes the name of the assembly in which it resides. A type called MyType loaded in the scope of one assembly is not the same as a type called MyType loaded in the scope of another assembly. ∙ It forms a reference scope boundary . The assembly’s manifest contains assembly metadata that is used for resolving types and satisfying resource requests. It specifies the types and resources that are exposed outside the assembly. The manifest also enumerates other assemblies on which it depends. ∙ It forms a version boundary . The assembly is the smallest versionable unit in the common language runtime; all types and resources in the same assembly are versioned as a unit. The assembly’s manifest describes the version dependencies you specify for any dependent assemblies. ∙ It forms a deployment unit. When an application starts, only the assemblies that the application initially calls must be present. Other assemblies, such as localization resources or assemblies containing utility classes, can be retrieved on demand. This allows applications to be kept simple and thin when first downloaded. ∙ It is the unit at which side-by-side execution is supported. Assemblies can be static or dynamic . Static assemblies can include .NET Framework types (interfaces and classes), as well as resources for the assembly (bitmaps, JPEG files, resource files, and so on). Static assemblies are stored on disk in PE files. You can also use the .NET Framework to create dynamic assemblies, which are run directly from memory and are not saved to disk before execution. You can save dynamic assemblies to disk after they have executed. There are several ways to create assemblies. You can use development tools, such as Visual Studio .NET, that you have used in the past to create .dll or .exe files. You can use tools provided in the .NET Framework SDK to create assemblies with modules created in other development environments. You can also use common language runtime APIs, such as Reflection.Emit, to create dynamic assemblies.  50. What are the contents of assembly? In general, a static assembly can consist of four elements: ∙ The assembly manifest , which contains assembly metadata. ∙ Type metadata . ∙ Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) code that implements the types. ∙ A set of resources

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